Montag, 6. Mai 2013

'Short Stays' Studies - Schnürleib Studien

Zunächst einmal möchte ich mich herzlich bei meinen werten Lesern für ihre Geduld bedanken, die hoffentlich heute reich belohnt wird.
Ich fürchte allerdings, dass ich dem Begriff 'short' in der Überschrift nicht gerecht werden kann, denn es wird ziemlich ausführlich. Ich verspreche jedoch, dass es wirklich ausgesprochen interessant wird und es neben allerlei theoretischen Ergebnissen auch praktische Anleitungen geben wird.
Am besten ist es, sich mit einer Tasse Kanne Tee auszustatten (so wie ich es in diesem Augenblick tue) und mir in die erste Dekade des 19. Jahrhunderts zu folgen.
Kann's losgehen?!
First I'd like to thank my dear readers for their patience, which will hopefully be rewarded properly today.
I'm afraid the above mentioned term 'short' in the headline won't do, actually this will be a very long post. However I promise a whole lot of interesting news and there won't be mere theoretical studies, but also plenty of practical tutorials.
I may recommend to fetch a cup pot of tea (like I have at hand) and follow me into the first decade of the 19th century.
Ready to start?!

Zu meinem letzten Beitrag über die 'Half Stays a la Paresseuse' habe ich viele Hinweise bekommen, unter anderem, dass der Begriff 'short stays' sehr wohl in einem Patent um 1800 und später nach 1812 in einer anderen Schrift auftaucht. Durch die jetzigen Studien darf ich behaupten, dass in diesem Fall eine etymologische/semantische Betrachtung dienlich ist.
Worte und deren Bedeutung änderen sich häufig innerhalb einiger Jahre, etwas, dass wir heute auch noch erfahren. Um das im Zusammenhang mit den Jahren um 1800 zu verstehen, müssen wir uns auf die Zeit und ihre Gepflogenheiten einlassen, dann wird schnell klar, dass sich die Bezeichnung 'short' und 'long' bei dem Patent um 1800 nicht etwa auf die Länge des Stoffs bezieht, sondern welche Silhouette dadurch erzielt wird. 'Long', also lang, für den ursprünglich anatomisch korrekten Sitz der Taille, 'short', also kurz, für die Empiretaille.
Ab 1808/10 verschwimmen diese Begriffe erstmalig, denn zu dieser Zeit tritt das Korsett zum ersten Mal in Erscheinung und löste mit der Bezeichnung 'long' den Sitz der Taille ab, hin zur Länge des Stoffes in gerader Linie über die Hüfte.
Ähnliches findet sich auch in der deutschen Sprache, dazu später mehr.
I received some remarks and hints with my last post 'Half stays a la paresseuse', one of them was that there was a mention of 'short stays' in a patent from around 1800 and later after the 1812 in another publication.
With my latest research I'd like to refer to a helpful etymological/semantical examination.
Words and their meaning often change in the course of years, something we still experience today. To understand  the terms and meanings of the time around 1800 we have to understand the habits and general circumstances of life, then it's clear that the terms 'long' and 'short' in the mentioned patent are not referring to the lenght of fabric, but what silhouette the stays create. 'Long' means the anatomical correct waist, whereas 'short' refers to the fashionable high waist.
From 1808/10 onwards these terms mingle for the first time with the newly invented/introduced corset, 'long' does not refer to the waist anymore, but to the lenght of the fabric.
Something similar can be found in the German language, which I will later relate to.
Corset de Ninon, Costume Parisien 1810 (Quelle/source: SceneInThePast)

Aber was war dann mit 'short stays' gemeint? Und vor allem, wie sahen sie aus?!
Nun, zumindest nicht so, wie es uns bislang häufig suggeriert wurde. 
Wir dürfen nicht vergessen: Mode ändert sich zwar, aber sie ändert sich allmählich und wir befinden uns zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts, nicht im hektischen 21. Jahrhundert und Entwicklungen setzten sich nicht von heute auf morgen durch!
But what was meant with 'short stays' then? And how did they look like?!
Well, they actually do not look like those stays, which we usually see everywhere.
We have to remind ourselves: fashion means change for sure, but gradually and we're at the beginning of the 19th century, not in the hectic 21st century. Changes did not happen in a dash.

1809 La fureuer des corsets (Quelle/source: Hope Greenberg)

Bei diesem  - sicherlich so manchem Leser vertrauten - Kupferstich, sehen wir die üblichen 'short stays' oder in Deutsch 'Schnürleiber' der Damenwelt um 1800-1810. (Nicht durch den Begriff 'corset' aus dem Französischen durcheinanderbringen lassen, auch hier handelt es sich wieder um eine etymologische/semantische Entwicklung)
Die Schnürbrust des 18. Jahrhunderts hat dieser Bekleidung erst allmählich Platz geschaffen, aber es sind noch viele Gemeinsamkeiten da, aber auch einige erfreuliche Neuerungen.
This - for some readers quite familiar - copperplate, shows the common 'short stays' or in German 'Schnuerleib' of the fashionable woman in 1800-1810. (Don't get confused by the french term 'corset', this is another etymologic/semantical developement)
The heavily boned 18th century stays ('long stays' or in German 'Schnuerbrust') gradually gave way to the new stays, still there are a lot of similarities, but also lots of pleasant improvements.

Die Ärzteschaft damals war sich einig in ihrer ablehnenden Haltung gegenüber den Schnürbrüsten und versuchte den Damen mit allen Mitteln die 'künstliche Einzwängung' des Körpers auszureden:
The physicians back then preached against the heavily boned 18th century stays and tried to talked the female followers of fashion out of the 'artificial shaping' of the body:

1797 (London), Martha Mears The pupil of Nature (Quelle/source: googlebooks)

1804 (Breslau), Martha Mears/Elias Henschel Wohlmeynender Rat für gebildete Frauen (Quelle/source: googlebooks)

Und? 
Haben sich die Damen an den Rat von Mears, Henschel, Sömmering, Klees und anderer Ärzte gehalten?
Natürlich nicht!
What happened?
Would the women have listen to the advice of Mears, Henschel, Sömmering, Klees and other physicians? 
Certainly not!

1810 (Wien) Christian Wilhelm Hufeland (Quelle/source: googlebooks)

(Translation) VI. Faults and failures in clothing
Close fitting, but not proper made-to-measure clothes, (espcially those, which have been worn by someone else before), tight lacings, especially heavily boned stays (Schnuerbrueste), which still aren't out of fashion, and now that the upper classes would wear them less often, are more widely spread among the lower classes...

Schnürbrust, Schnürleib, Korsett, Mieder, Long Stays, Short Stays...Ebenso verwirrt, wie meine Leser es nun sein mögen, ließ ich mich Anfang März auf der Couch nieder, um in einer Reprintausgabe des "Journal des Luxus und der Moden' zu schmökern, als ich dort auf einen Verweis stieß, der sich als wahrer Schatz entpuppte:
Schnuerbrust, Schnuerleib, Corset, Long stays, Short stays...Confused, like some of my dear readers by now might be, I settled down on the couch in March to read in a reprint of the 'Journal des Luxus und der Moden', where I stumbled upon a hint, which proved to be a rare gem:

1810 (Dresden) J.S. Bernhardt, Anleitung den menschlichen Körper, besonders aber den weiblichen zu kleiden und zu verschönern (Quelle/source: SLUB Dresden)

J.S. Bernhardt, ein Schneidermeister, hat uns in seiner zweibändigen Ausgabe (1810/1811) nicht nur ausführliche Texte und Anleitungen zur Bekleidung hinterlassen, sondern auch Schnittmuster, denn sein Werk wandte sich vor allem an die Schneiderin daheim.
Dafür können wir ihm nicht genug danken!
J.S. Bernhardt, a tailor and dressmaker, has left us not only lots of text, tutorials in his two-volume publication (1810/1811), but also patterns, as he has written his book for the seamstress at home.
How could we ever thank him enough!

Auch Bernhardt wendet sich in seinem Buch gegen das Tragen der Schnürbrust, obschon er deren Anfertigung als Grundlage für die Schnürleiber nutzt.
Er lobt vor allem den Einfluß der Englischen Mode und damit ist er nicht allein:
Bernhardt also speaks against the heavily boned Schnuerbrust, although he uses the basic pattern for his recommended Schnuerleib ('short stays').
He is fond of the influence of the English Fashion...well others are, too:
1801 (Tübingen), J.C. Hüttner, Englische Miscellen (Quelle/source: googlebooks)

(Translation)
The english long stays (here: heavily boned stays!) or short stays are pleasantly different from the french and german stays, thus I'd like to talk about them.
They are, what almost stands for all english goods; lots of improvements, alterations, additions and embelishments of the London stays do not only amuse the ladies, but would also be appropriate to enter the publication of the Parisian Arts et Metiers.
Those disadvantages, which the physicians all over the country declare against the Schnuerleiber (here he mixes Schnuerbrust and Schnuerleib!), cannot be said about the english ones. Arguments for their stays are easy childbirths and less crippeled women.

Und nun endlich geben wir dem Schimpfen und Fluchen der Ärzte nach und begeben uns unter Mithilfe von J.S. Bernhardts Werk daran, einen Schnürleib ('short stays') nach historischem Vorbild zu nähen.
Voraussetzung dafür ist zunächst die Ermittlung der Linie 'gg' (nach Bernhardt)
And now we give in to all the arguments and curses of the physicians and start to assemble a historical correct pair of 'short stays' (Schnuerleib) according to J.S. Bernhardt's book.
First we need to find out the measuremnt of line 'gg' (after Bernhardt)


An der Stelle der Schulter, die am weitesten nach vorne ragt, wird in senkrechter Linie ein Lineal angelegt, das hinunter bis zur Mitte des Busens reicht (grüne Linie). Von diesem Punkt aus wird Maß genommen bis zur Mitte des Rückens bzw der Wirbesäule.
Üblicherweise liegt der Wert zwischen 20 bis 30 Zentimetern. Der ermittelte Wert wird nach Bernhardt durch 7 geteilt:
beispielsweise 26 : 7 = 3,7
Dieser Wert widerum ist der Multiplikator für die folgenden Schnittmuster.
Where the shoulder points to the front, add a ruler vertically down to the mid of the bosom (green line).
From this point measure around to the mid of the back (spine).
Usually it measures 20 to 30 centimetres. This measurement is now according to Bernhardt devided with 7:
for example 26 : 7 = 3,7
The sum will be the multipicator for the following patterns.

Mein erster Schnürleib basiert auf Bernhardts Patronen 'F' und 'D', denn er gibt ausdrücklich den Hinweis, dass die Muster nach eigenem Geschmack abgewandelt werden können.
Bei beiden Schnürleibern ist die Rückenschnürung vorgesehen, allerdings verfügen sie zusätzlich über eine 'falsche' Frontschnürung, welche bereits 1801 in den Englischen Miscellen von Hüttner Erwähnung findet:
My first pair of short stays is based on Bernhardt's patterns 'F' and 'D', as he recommends to match the personal taste regarding the look.
Both stays have back closure and an additional fake front closure, which is already mentioned in Hüttner's Englische Miscellen in 1801:
(Translation)
The stays do not have more than four small rows of boning, two at the front at the lacing holes, two at the back; in the front they only reach mid bosom with additional folded cloth behind.

Eigentlich ist es doch nicht so überraschend, dass die Schnürleiber in ihrer Form noch den Schnürbrüsten ähneln, denn wie gesagt, die Mode änderte sich nur langsam.
Aber zurück zum praktischen Teil -
Das Muster wird in zwei Schritten erstellt und ausgedruckt:
Zunächst werden die Schnitte so ausgedruckt, dass das blaue Quadrat genau einen Zentimeter mißt.
Den Wert den wir vorhin ermittelt haben, nehmen wir dann als Multiplikator für die eigentliche Vergrößerung. 
Beträgt er wie oben erwähnt z.B. 3,7 dann hat auch das blaue Quadrat auf dem eigentlichen Schnittmuster den Wert 3,7.
Bei diesem Schnittmuster sind keine Nahtzugaben dabei, die müssen noch eingezeichnet werden.
Auf der vergrößerten Kopie habe ich außerdem am Rücken (CB) noch jeweils 1,5 Zentimeter extra hinzugegeben und die Träger ein wenig breiter gemacht.
Actually it isn't that surprising to find out that the 'short stays' still resembled the 18th century stays, as I've said before, fashion changed gradually back then.
But back to the practical part -
The pattern will be printed twice as follows:
Please print out the patterns in a size that the blue square measures exactly 1 Centimetre.
The number we've measured and calculated before is then the multiplicator for the actual resized pattern.
If it measures 3.7 cm like mentioned above, then the size of the sqaure has to measure 3.7 cm on the final print, too.
There are no seam allowances in the pattern - you'll have to add them.
On the final pattern I've also added an additional 1.5 cm at the back (CB) and slightly broadend the shoulder straps.

Das Schnittmuster mit Nahtzugabe und dem angepassten Zwickel. Beim Zuschneiden des Stoffes ist es von besonderer Bedeutung dem Schnittverlauf des ursprünglichen Schnittes (hier Fig. F) zu folgen, d.h. die Teile werden ein wenig schräg auf den Stoff gelegt (wie im Bild), um die Elastizität im Querverlauf des Stoffes zu nutzen.
The final pattern with seam allowance and bust gusset. When cutting the fabric it is very important to follow the layout of the pattern (Fig.F), that means the pieces are laid out like in the picture to benefit from the bias of the fabric.

Zur Verwendung des Stoffes habe ich bei Hüttner in den Englischen Miscellen noch folgenden Hinweis gefunden:
Hüttner in the Englische Miscellen gives a good advice concerning the proper fabric:
(Translation)
The fabric of choice is dimity. The stays are stitched with contrasting light grey silk thread.

Schnürleib aus den Vorlagen 'D' und 'F'. Ich habe den Schnitt von Fig. F gewählt, allerdings mit dem falschen Frontverschluß wie bei Fig. D. Vorne sind zwei 7 mm Stäbe Plastikfischbein eingearbeitet.
Der Schnürleib ist zweilagig. Innen habe ich festeren Baumwolltwill gewählt und für außen gechintzte Baumwolle.
Short stays according to patterns 'D' and 'F'. I've chosen the draft of pattern Fig.F with the front closure of Fig.D. At the front two 7 mm plastic bonings are inserted.
The stays are made of two layers. The inner layer is cotton twill, the outer layer glazed cotton.

Die Innenansicht mit dem ungebleichten Twill. Ich habe verschiedene Nähte ausgetestet, da Bernhardt darüber keinerlei Hinweise gegeben hat.
The inside with the unbleached twill. I've tried different seams as Bernhardt did not give any advice about it. 

Die Rückseite mit den Ziernähten aus grauer Seide.
The back with the seams stitched in grey silk.

Die Front. Der Schnürleib endet oberhalb der Hüften.
The front. The short stays reach above the hips.
Die Rückansicht mit den weit ausgeschnittenen Trägern. Und Mut zur Schnür'lücke'!
J.S. Bernhardt empfiehlt, dass bei der Schnürung eine Lücke erhalten bleiben soll (im Gegensatz zu dem, was wir auf dem dem Bild 1809 La fureuer des corsets sehen. Dort handelt es sich um eine Karikatur, die das Überschnüren anklagt)
The back with the shoulder straps reaching far back into the middle. And a lacing gap!
 J.S. Bernhardt recommends to leave a gap (in contrary to the plate
1809 La fureuer des corsets, which actually is a caricature and accuses tight lacing)

Die Brust wird nur halb umschlossen und angehoben.
The bust is only cupped half and lifted.

Und da der Schnitt auf Anhieb so wunderbar gelungen ist, habe ich nicht gezögert und mich gleich noch an ein weiteres Paar begeben. Das folgende Paar beruht auf einem Schnitt, den J.S. Bernhardt für besonders geeignet hielt.
And as the pattern worked so easily, I didn't hesitate to make up a second pair. The following pair is based on a pattern, which J.S. Bernhardt preferred and favoured.

Dieses Muster besteht nur aus zwei Teilen! Ganz wichtig bei diesem Paar ist es, dass die Rückenlinie (CB) senkrecht auf dem Stoff liegt, sodass die Front (CF) schräg verläuft, das verleiht dem kompletten Schnürleib die nötige Elastizität.
This pair is made up of two parts only! It is very important with these stays, that the back (CB) runs vertically on the fabric, whereas the front (CF) runs on the bias, which gives the stays the needed flexibility.
Mein Schnittmuster mit Nahtzugabe...
My pattern with added seam allowance...
...und den angepassten Zwickeln für die Brust und Hüfte. Dieser Schnürleib sitzt nämlich halb auf der Hüfte.
...and the bust and hip gussets. This pair of stays sits on the hips.

Von außen...
Outisde...
...und von Innen.
...and inside.

Die angepassten Zwickel an der Hüfte.
The hip gussets.

Die Träger werden im Rücken angebunden. In der Mitte befindet sich der Blankscheit.
The straps are fastened in the back. On the left is the busk.

Dieser Schnürleib kreeirt die perfekte Silhouette, die wir von vielen Kleidern kennen!
These stays create the perfect silhouette, which is familiar from many dresses!



Da der Schnürleib aus nur zwei Lagen Stoff und nur wenig Fischbein besteht, ist es sehr bequem.
As the stays are made of only two layers and very little boning, it's comfortable.

Neben Fischbein konnte auch ein hölzerner oder stählerner Blankscheit verwendet werden.
Besides boning wooden or steel busks were used for the front.

Wenn man sich das Patron Fig. C nochmal genau ansieht, ist dort eine weitere Linie an der Brust eingezeichnet, eine weitere Option für einen Schnürleib.
Oftmals fragt man sich bei hauchzarten Kleidern, warum sich darunter keinerlei Naht abbildet, die Antwort ist eigentlich simpel, der Schnürleib wird unter die Brust geschnitten.
A closer look on pattern Fig. C reveals that there's a further marked line at the bust, which is another option for a pair of stays.
If you ever wondered that there's no seam showing through the delicate fabric of muslin dresses, well the answer is simple, the short stays are cut below the bust.

Statt des Blankscheits sind hier vier Fischbeinstäbe eingesetzt worden.
Die langen Träger werden bei J.S. Bernhardt, aber auch in den Englischen Miscellen nochmals genauer beschrieben. Da ich nicht die gleichen Träger wie bei dem Schnürleib zuvor verwenden wollte, wählte ich diese Möglichkeit.
Instead of the busk there are four pieces of boning. 
The long shoulder straps are described not only in J.S. Bernhardt's book, but also in the Englische Miscellen.
As I wanted a different look on this pair I decided on this variation.
Die Bänder werden auf dem Rücken gekreuzt und seitlich eingehakt.
The straps are crossed in the back and fastened on hooks at the sides.
Außen...
Outside...
...Innen.
...inside.

J.S. Bernhardt empfiehlt, den fehlenden Teil durch eine Art Chemisette zu ersetzen, welche die Brust bedeckt und festhält. Diesen Zweck erfüllt auch das Hemd.
J.S. Bernhardt recommeneds to wear a kind of chemisette with this pair, which covers and holds the bust. This purpose is also fullfilled by the shirt.

Da der Stoff im Querverlauf geschnitten wurde, schmiegt sich der Schnürleib eng an den Körper.
As the fabric was cut on the bias, the stays fit like a glove.

Der Rücken mit den gekreuzten Bändern.
The back with the crossed shoulder straps.

Abschließend bleibt mir festzustellen, dass die tatsächlichen Schnürleiber eher den Schnürbrüsten des 18. Jahrhunderts ähneln, als den heute bekannten und auf dem Markt befindlichen 'short stays'.
Es wäre wünschenswert das diesbezüglich ein Umdenken stattfindet. Sicherlich gab es immer Sonderformen wie z.B. das Leibchen im Kyoto Costume Institute, aber wenn man sich näher mit J.S. Bernhardts Lektüre beschäftigt, erfährt man mehr darüber, wie z.B. ein kranker, alter oder nicht ebenmäßiger Körper unterstützt werden kann.
Die Stays a la Pareseusse, die ich neulich vorgestellt habe, müssen näher zu den 1820ern Jahren umdatiert werden. Sie sind in der Tat Halbkorsetts (und ähneln dem Korsett de Ninon), die allerdings lediglich zu besonderen Anlässen, wie etwa Reisen, getragen wurden.
Finally the short stays look much more like the 18th century heavy boned stays, instead of the 'modern short stays', we usually see made up.
It would be eligible to try and spread the historical correct stays. However there will always be special forms of stays like the one from the Kyoto Costume Institute, but according to J.S. Bernhardt and first hand sources there always have been many ways to support the body of ill, old or those who are lacking the well-proportioned ideal of the Empire.
The stays a la paresseuse, which I have blogged about recently, will be dated closer to the 1820s. They are true half stays (having a similar design like those long stays), only being worn on special occasions like travels.

Falls einige meiner Leser sich dazu entschließen, die Schnittmuster einmal selbst auszuprobieren, würde ich mich sehr freuen, zu hören, ob J.S. Bernhardt auch in ihrem Fall mit der Kalkulation richtig gelegen hat.
Und nun muß ich mir erstmal eine weitere Kanne Tee aufbrühen...
If any of my readers decide to give these patterns a try, I'd be happy to hear wether J.S. Bernhardt's calculation worked for them, too.
And now I have to fetch another pot of steaming tea...

Kommentare:

  1. This is probably the greatest and most helpful post in the world..now if only I could actually make these up! I really like second pair but would have to do something different with the gussets at the bust...I am just barely an A-cup so I need some work to get any lift! I also tend to make clothes a little later (1812 and beyond) would this style work too?? They look PHENOMENALLY comfortable! I'm scared to try and alas wish I had time to get them done for my big talk in June! Thank you sooo much for posting this! I am going to share it!

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    1. Dear Miss Waterman :)

      thank you for your lovely comment. I'm really excited about the stays, too :)
      Yes, they also work for 1812 and later...actually this research has taught me that fashion developed slowly and the 'long stays' or corset was rather new, so these 'short stays' would have been still fashionably. Even the heavily boned stays remained around the year 1810.
      They are really easy to sew. I've made the mock-up with the machine and it took less than an afternoon to assemble, overall I only needed to adjust the gussests. Even the actual handsewn pair was quickly done.
      I'd be happy if you'd give it a try and if you have any problems, please don't hesitate to ask.
      Sabine

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  2. Wow! !!! What an awesome post! !! Great work!

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    1. Thank you!!! I'm so happy I've found J.S. Bernhardt's books :)

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  3. Wow, what a bit of research! So very interesting! This makes much more sense than the commercial short stays you see everywhere.

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    1. Yes, doesn't it make much more sense?! We still see the hallmarks of the 18th century stays, yet there's gradual change in comfort and shaping.
      Thank you very muchfor your comment :)

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  4. Liebe Sabine,

    Du hast wahrlich nicht zuviel versprochen! Hut ab vor Deiner Recherchearbeit und den schönen Schnürleibern, die Du genäht hast. Sie sehen wirklich bemerkenswert bequem aus und sind offenbar nicht allzuschwer nachzuarbeiten. Vielen, vielen Dank, dass Du all Deine Erkenntnisse mit uns teilst!

    LG
    Emily

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    1. *freu* Vielen lieben Dank, Emily! Ich hoffe doch sehr, dass Du auch ein Paar schneidern wirst - und bin schon gespannt auf Deine Meinung.

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  5. Dear Sabine,
    Bravo, bravo, bravo! Hooray for following all leads, for they led you to a treasure. You can see the silhouettes of all three stays in paintings and prints from the era. Now those revealing muslin dresses that the more adventurous donned make a bit more sense. These stays mark missing style links from the 1790s to the 18-teens.

    Sabine, does Germany have a costume society like the Costume Society of America, with a peer-revewed journal? My dear, you should really write this up formally and submit it for publication. This is serious work you have done, and fills in a true gap. Or perhaps you could submit to the American publication. It's worth contacting them.

    Schnuerleib C creates such a handsome line: I absolutely love it, and yes, I am going to try it. Hmmm, don't have the proper fabric...or do I?

    By the way, "Schnuerleib" translates as "laced body" or "laced bodice". In the 16th and 17th centuries stays were known as "bodies", as in "a pair of bodies".

    Ah, I am so pleased for you and excited for costumers everywhere. Congratulations on a fabulously successful research dig!

    Hugs and hugs,

    Natalie

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    1. Thank you very much for your comment, Natalie. Your detailed blogposts are always such an inspiration for my research. Looking forward very much to seeing your pair of Bernhardt's stays...unfortunately there's no hint on fabric choice or colour in Bernhardt's two Volumes, as the period seamstresses, whom he has addressed, probably knew what fabric and colour to choose. In the 'Englische Miscellen' dimity and light grey silk thread are recommended - together with the sheer white dresses we might conclude that white was the best/most practical and only choice colourwise...

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  6. Wonderful article! Thank you so much for sharing!

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  7. Wahnsinn! Du hast nicht zu viel versprochen!!!
    Und das sieht auch so aus, als könnte man (ich?) es halbwegs problemlos nachnähen...
    Ich bin zwar eigentlich gerade ganz glücklich mit meinen kurzen Short Stays, aber wenn ich das so anschaue, kriege ich Lust da wieder rumzutüfteln. :-)
    Vielen Dank für den tollen Bericht!
    Liebe Grüße
    azuela

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    1. Ohhh, vielen Dank!!! Ja, versuch Dich mal an einem Paar, das geht eigentlich ruckzuck und ich würde mich unheimlich freuen, zu erfahren, ob Bernhardts Formel tatsächlich so universell und problemlos funktioniert :)

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  8. Ein fabelhafter Blogeintrag und tolle Recherchearbeit!! Die Mühen haben sich auf alle Fälle gelohnt: Vielen Dank dafür!!
    Ich denke ich werde das eine - oder alle - bei Zeiten nacharbeiten. :-)
    Liebe Grüße, Eva

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    1. Tausend Dank :) Ich bin schon gespannt auf deine Kreation, liebe Eva!!!

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  9. Beautiful post and very inspiring. Thank you for your research and some words about the German names of stays. The book edited in Breslau (now is Wrocław) is very interesting too.

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    1. Thank you very much for your comment. I'm glad you're inspired by the post :)

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  10. A wonderful post! I did very much enjoy reading it :-)
    Thank you so much for sharing your research work and the patterns with us!

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    1. Thank you so much, I'm happy you've enjoyed the long post :) It was such fun to research and sew and share!

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  11. Very interesting post! How wonderful that you actually made the three variations of the stays; beautiful work, thanks for sharing!

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    1. Thank you very much...and I'm very fond of your latest stays :)

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    2. Thank you! That's a high compliment! :)

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  12. Awesome! I really like the last set of stays with the removed bust, I have always strugled with what to wear with one of my low bust cross over dresses. This would solve that problem.

    Your stays are beautiful and inspire me to get cracking on a new pair myself.

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    1. Thanks a lot! These are such bliss to assemble, indeed, we cannot thank J.S. Bernhardt enough for the books :)

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  13. Thank you for sharing your research. Your work is beautiful! I love to try out your patterns.

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    1. Yes please, give them a try...and let me know how the patterns and calculation work for you :)

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  14. Oh wow, yet again your work is beautiful. I love that you're also sharing your research. Understanding the difference in meanings of short makes it really clear what has been described in journals of the time.

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    1. Thank you very much...yes it is not only interesting sewing-wise, but also the see the terms with the eyes of an early 19th century person, rather than with our 21st century knowledge.

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  15. Dear Sabine,

    Might you be willing to report your feelings about the designs after you have worn them for some time? I am curious as to whether either version of Schnuerleib C, for instance, tends to wrinkle at the waistline after a few hours, or if F/D starts to dig at the hips.

    I really think C is very doable for my less-than-stellar stays skills. I've only made one pair...fully boned ones, and they aren't things of beauty. By this point stays were largely white because of dresses above them, yes? Do you have any evidence of flossing or other decoration during this decade?

    Thanks kindly,

    Natalie (still mulling)

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    1. I was absolutetly stunned that these work with such little boning (without additional cording below the bust) and only relativley thin fabric, yet they do embrace the body and have a tight fit and do give lots of support.
      As soon as I've tested them for some days, I'll let you know, but actually - as being bias cut - they do not wrinkle or cut...

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    2. Oh and no flossing was mentioned...just the use of grey silk thread for the boning channels...and no further mention of decoartive cording...there's another Schnuerleib in the book which has the front made up with tiny metal spirals inserted in the fabric (like on my corselet de soie), maybe I'll try that pair of stays, too...

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    3. No wrinkling! Hurray! Ooh, would like to see the spiral stays too...

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  16. Wonderful and amazing research! !!!! I am now wanting to make a new pair of stays.....I always love your blog. Thank you for sharing this with us!!!!!

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    1. Thank you very much. I'm glad you've enjoyed the post :)

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  17. So much outstanding information, Sabine, plus those *multiple* lovely pairs of stays! Thanks for sharing your research with us.

    Best,
    Quinn

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    1. Thank you, Quinn. It was a pleasure to find out all the amazing historical facts and getting the chance to assemble the pairs according to period first hand instructions :)

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  18. This is just wonderful! It answers so many questions. Now I know that "short" is just talking about the waist placement, not the overall length of the stays. And then those designs look very much like a lot of the 1790s stays in museums, but with vastly simplified cut. They do show a clear link between 18th century stays, to which they are still closer, than the 1820s and 1830s shape. Have you ever seen any stays similar to Bernhardt's in museums or other collections?

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    1. Thank you very much!
      Yes, the early 19th century stays described by Bernhardt and also Huettner seemed to be the missing link between the heavily boned 18th century stays and the longs stays (or corset) from 1808/1810 onwards (but the Schnuerleib was still worn).
      Unfortunatley I haven't seen an extant pair, but maybe some of the pieces we see in museums actually are early 19th century ones, but have been labelled 'transitional stays', a closer examination would help, now that they can be compared to the patterns. Bernhardt sums up that these stays can be changed daily. He does not use the term 'wear', but 'change' - maybe that indicates that the stays have been washed often and hence are more prone to tear and wear. Huettner recommend in the 'Englische Miscellen' to rub the stays cloth with bread (yes, bread!) to keep the white fresh and clean - I don't know how helpful this is or if it eventually added to the fading?

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  19. I think the 2nd pair look quite comfy. And would give support without being too restrictive.

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    1. Yes, they're all giving good support, yet they aren't too restrictive. Amazing how two relativley thin layers of fabric without much boning or any cording, but with a clever cut can achieve this :)

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    2. In Version 'C' if like me someone was a large cup size does it give suggestions for modifications? A 2nd gusset or make the one gusset longer or wider?

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    3. The gussets in the pattern ('Patron') are just examples for what Bernhardt thought to be the 'ideal body', unfortunately he does not give any suggestions for modifying it, although they of course have to be altered according to the measurements (I have slightly enlarged (widened) all the gussets, too). I highly recommend to make a muslin/mock-up first, where you can carefully adjust a piece of cloth to find out the best size for the gussets. Pin/sew the gusset piece on one side and then allow it to take shape, pin on the other side and mark it.
      All the cups in the book had only one gusset to get the period shape. If it doesn't help when you enlarge the 'V' gusset with a wider piece of cloth, you might try to cut a bit deeper into the front piece and thus enlarge the whole bust gusset (make it wider & longer). However it should not cover the bust completely, but lift it.
      Hope my explanation is helpful for you.

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  20. How an amazing post. Thank you so much for sharing with us all the inestigations proccess and the results. I can't say which stays I likes more, they are all amazing!!
    Such a god job, as always : )

    Nereida

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    1. Thank you very much for the lovely comment. I'm indeed very excited about this project, too...and once again 'hurrah' to J.S. Bernhardt :)

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  21. An absolutely brilliant article. So well researched and I think the results show the most correct silhouette I have ever seen. Following your guide I am going to have a go at the two part stays. Thank you so much!

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    1. Thank you very much - this makes me smile all over :) I'm looking forward to seeing your stays - please let me know how you like the pattern and calculation.

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  22. This is an absolutely fantastic find, and thank you so, so much for reasearching this so thoroughly, and sharing this! Version C looks particularly intriguing... I guess it's no wonder it was his favourite. This should come in very, very handy - I've been promising to make stays and a dress for my sister for ever so long, and I was not sure which route to go; the modern "short stays" are not recommended for larger cup sizes, but we did not want anything too complicated for the start. Version C looks simple and effective!

    I noticed your gussets look a bit different from his diagram, though. Did you change them for custom fit? Is it difficult to custom fit?

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    1. Thanks a lot for your comment! I'm truly excited about Bernhardt's patterns.
      They are quite easy to draft, but I did a mock-up first (it's done in a flash). My gussets are indeed a little larger than the one Bernhardt has chosen for the pattern, put he states that these have to be fitted. It's not difficult, if you do the mock up just sew a piece of cloth on one site of the gussets and leave the other free, then put on the stays, adjust them and then pin the other side of the triangular gusset on and mark the lines (do not forget to add seam allowance to all the pieces). Also the bust gusset can be cut deeper into the fabric if necessary. Hope my explanation makes sense ;) Happy sewing!

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    2. Thank you for the explanation! Yes, it makes perfect sense.

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  23. This post is fantastic! Thank you so much. With this pattern I might be brave enough to try and make my first stays. I very much admire your historical research and attention to detail in all your projects. Thank you for sharing it with us.

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  24. Amazing! Thank you for your hard work on these; the results are absolutely wonderful. Which stays do you think provide the most "lift" for the bustline? Obviously we see that effect in many fashion plates from the time. And how do you like the crossed straps? I find them intriguing.. I like the look! Again, great job - thank you!

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    1. Thank you! I think they're all patterned to give a good lift, but usually those with adjustable shoulder straps work best. Compared to the common ('modern') short stays, (that often felt like wearing a modern bra), these are really different as they support and envelope the body, which was Bernhardt's intention when he patterned them.
      And yes, they do give the typical regencyesque silhouette we see in the fashion plates of the era.

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  25. What about this example from MET: http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/80037169?img=0
    There isn't much information but the pattern looks similar...

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    1. Yes, indeed it looks quite similar. Thank you for sharing. Both Huettner and Bernhardt have written that there have been front closures (although those in the pattern section have only this 'fake front closure'). The only thing that puzzles me are the metall eyelets (which have been patented in the early 1820s), but these could be later additions.
      I haven't seen an actual pair as described in Bernhardt's book (these stays usually would fade quickly as being of 'light fabric' and cut on the bias, which means a lot of strech), maybe this could be a pre 1810 example, but it could be as well made up later...this pair would be worth a thorough examination.
      Thanks again for refering to it.
      Sabine

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  26. I am very impress on your information ,Its a really very impressive blog. I really got some another very nice information , so thanks for sharing these tips.
    Tassen bedrucken

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  27. You might be interested in my book The Lady's Stratagem: A Repository of 1820s Directions for the Toilet, Mantua-Making,
    Stay-Making, Millinery & Etiquette. Details are at http://www.lavoltapress.com/LadysStratagem-page.htm and many online bookstores.

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  28. Hello

    I have just found this site and thank you for all the work and excellent information. The comments here are really helpful too.

    I am interested more in social history and values than the sewing and construction of stays. I congratulate everybody here who makes corsets!

    Please tell me more about the stays with the crossed shoulder straps. I understand that this type of straps were uniquely for correcting round shoulders. Even in this period of lighter corsets and easier to wear dressed (compared with mid 18 cent and mid 19 cent!) posture and good deportment were considered to be essential.

    I'd love to read your comments on the way in which this period of corsets change your posture and movement.

    Betty

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    1. Dear Betty,
      thank you very much for your comment. As for the crossed shoulder straps, I think they have the same effect like those adjustable shoulder straps on modern underwear, they have a bit of a push-effect to the bust. Probably it would have made even more sense if I've added them to the model with the bust gussets (next time I'll try).
      Bernhardt's book actually comes in two volume and the second one mainly deals with ways of correcting/hiding any posture issues and physical flaws by the cut and construction of garments (underwear and outerwear).
      Also after constructing the Lethieré spencer I've found out that the combination of tight two pieced sleeves set far into the back of the bodice truly shape the posture and dictate the movement. I think it's the pieces that form the puzzle and 'build' the image, of which the perfect stays are the essential foundation.

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  29. I just started an attempt to recreate this pattern based on your research. The results are wonderful! I think these will be my favourite stays/corset so far, they are coming together like a dream. Thank you SO much for sharing this information in such great detail! It is also great to observe the interesting shoulder straps you used in the last example - I love the adjustability and self-fastening quality of them.

    Do you know if it is possible to find J.S. Bernhardt's books in English? They sound extremely useful for understanding this time period.

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    1. Thank you very much for your lovely comment! Isn't it a real treasure that Bernhardt has supplied us with this ingenious and simple pattern?
      Unfortunately the books have never been translated, although they were even mentioned in the 'Journal des Dames et des Modes' in January 1811, but neither been published in french nor english...however there are some more patterns in the 1st Volume to work with. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask :)

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  30. Hello,
    I'm new to historical sewing (although not to modern sewing and pattern making), and am rather overwhelmed by how and where to begin. (I'm a bit of a perfectionist) Your blog is wonderful--a wealth of information! I've handsewn a chemise, and this post has me feeling ready to take on a set of stays, but first I'm hoping you can answer some questions? It appears that your gussets are one layer of the outer fabric--is that correct? Also, it looks as if you've sewn both the inner and outer layers together at the side seam, then turned them under and stitched to clean finish? The side front and back seams of the shell look as if they were sewn, pressed open, and then the lining edges were turned under and sewn to the shell? Is that correct? I'd appreciate any info you can give me so I can sew my stays in a period-correct way!

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    1. Dear Tracy,
      please excuse the delay, I've given a stays workshop the past few days. Thank you very much for your questions, which help immensley to see the process of building the stays in every facet. Unfortunately J.S. Bernhardt has given no hint in his book about how to actually assemble or sew a pair. Back at the workshop it was amazing to see each ones approach, once the pattern was drafted and the fabric cut.
      But to answer your questions: my gussets are made of two layers - both layers from the outer fabric (which in my case was a medium glazed cotton), but you can also just take one layer. Extant garments show that most commonly the fabric matched that of the shell.
      You're right about my 'procedure' of connecting the back seams. On that particular seam is no tension, it just holds the (plastic) whalebone, the tension of the lacing is solely on the lacing holes.
      More typical is that both seams are folded and then whipstitched together or attached from the back with tiny pointstitches. We also see stays where the back seam is covered under the tape and some where the fabric is just one piece folded to build the outer fabric and lining. Or the outer fabric is folded twice to the inside and stitched down on the lining.
      I suppose this was a rather confusing answer, but there's simply more than just one way to assemble it. I still hope that one day someone will dig out a primary source where it is described step by step - that would be ingenious :)
      Thanks again very much for your comment...and happy sewing :)

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  31. Being a plus sized lady, Im curious how these translate, especially since the contrast to hip/waist for me is extreme. I shall take your amazing research and see what I can do myself. Thank you for a lovely post!

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    1. Thank you for your comment! Please let me know, how you like the construction and wearability of these stays :)

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  32. Wow, I just made my first mock-up on the figure C and with just the smallest adjustments on the hipgussets it fit me like a glove.
    It is by far he most comfy pair of stays I've ever tried on!
    Thank you for sharing :)

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    1. Thank you so much for this feedback on your experience with the Bernhardt Stays!!! It's so good to hear that you've had no issues assembling it and especially that it fits well and comfortable :)

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    2. When I have time I'll try the other patterns too and come back too you with my experience =)

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  33. How wide is the busk you use for C?

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    1. It's about 3.5 Centimetre. But you can make it a bit wider or smaller, there was no rule.

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  34. I try to find anything that looks like that but not succesfully. Can you give me some pointers to webbshops and suitable busks.

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    1. I guess you're talking about the busk? I made mine from a wooden ruler, which was cut in length and then sanded around the edges.
      Ready-made busks might be availabe at etsy or Nehelenia Patterns.

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  35. Ich habe zwar noch nicht ausgegeben, aber die Schnürleibpläne nach der Anleitung erst einmal auf Eis gelegt. Ich wollte gerne die Vergrößerung nach der von dir beschriebenen Methode ausprobieren. Leider habe ich sehr viel Oberweite im Vergleich zum Rücken. So hat es leider absolut nicht gepasst. Nach vielen Änderungen, habe ich das ganze jetzt erst einmal geparkt. Ich kann allein nicht so gut ändern und eine moderne Schneiderpuppe hilft oft bei Stays wenig, habe ich- zumindest für mich, gemerkt.
    Ich denke, die Vergrößerungsmethode wird für kleinere Körbchen sicher besser passen.
    Ich melde mich nochmal, wenn ich den nächsten Versuch mache.
    Liebe Grüße!
    Becky

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    1. Liebe Becky,
      in der Tat ist es oft so, dass es sehr hilfreich ist, wenn man jemanden dabei hat um den Schnitt direkt an der Person anzupassen (bislang hatte ich zwei Workshops in denen wir nach dieser Methode gearbeitet haben). Geht man von dem ein oder anderen Kupfer aus, der Damen bei der Anprobe bzw Arbeit zeigt, ist das wohl auch damals die Methode der Wahl gewesen.
      Es ist gut, das Stück erstmal zur Seite zu legen und vielleicht ergibt sich ja die Möglichkeit es anpassen zu lassen. Manchmal ist es auch hilfreich statt einem Zwickel für das Körbchen zwei zu setzen, wichtig ist hernach, dass der Schnürleib bequem ist.
      Danke für Deinen Bericht! Ich wünsch Dir für den nächsten Versuch alles Gute!

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